If you contribute to your RRSP, you'll pay less tax. But if you pay down debt, you'll pay less interest. Which is better? There are many factors to consider, and it all depends on your personal and financial situation.
Start by doing the math
Use this calculator to help you compare the rate of return you're getting from your RRSP investments against the interest rate you're paying on your debt.
But it's not as simple as going with the higher rate.
Get a clear picture of all the numbers involved
- What exactly does your debt cost you each month or year?
- Are there fees or penalties if you pay your debt off faster? Example: making extra mortgage payments.
- How do you plan to invest the money in your RRSP? If you put money in safe investments that guarantee your return, your money will grow more slowly. If you choose investments that may grow faster like equities, there is no guarantee what you will make. You may even lose money.
- What costs will you pay to invest?
- How much tax will you save if you contribute to your RRSP this year?
Consider these 5 factors
1. Type of debt
The higher the interest rate on your debt, the more important it is to pay it down as quickly as possible. Example: credit card debt. But not all debts work the same. For example, mortgages are very different from credit cards.
2. Amount of debt
If you're carrying a large amount of high-interest debt, you'll be paying a lot in interest. Your priority will likely be to pay down this debt. If you owe a smaller amount, you may have more options. You may decide to put a little money in your RRSP, a little toward paying down debt, and then use any tax refund to pay down the debt further.
3. Your age
The closer you are to retirement, the more worried you may be that you haven’t saved enough money to live comfortably. But if you have high-interest debt, you may still want to try and clear it before putting any more money into your RRSP. Most financial experts recommend going into retirement mortgage-free and debt-free.
4. Your tax bracket
If you're currently in a higher tax bracket, it may be more important for you to reduce the tax you pay than for someone in a lower tax bracket. You may want to make an RRSP contribution instead of paying down your debt, despite the interest charges. But if you expect to be in a higher tax bracket in retirement, you may want to pay down the debt now.
5. Type of RRSP
There may be other benefits to your RRSP that you consider more of a priority than paying down debt. For example, if you have:
- a group RRSP and you want to get matching contributions from your employer, or
- a spousal RRSP and you want to build it up for income-splitting purposes in retirement.
Read Jasmine’s story
to learn how someone close to retirement made her choice.